- Towards a Newer Laocoon, Greenberg
- Towards a Philosophy of Photography, Flusser
- Indexicality and the concept of medium speciﬁcity, Doane
- Video the Aesthetic of Narcissism, Kraus
- Remediation, Bolter and Grusin
Friday, Febuary 1st 2019
- Empire by Andy Warhol basically started structuralist ﬁlm
- P. Adams Sitney coins the term, see also Structural Film Antology by Peter Gidal
- A lot of structuralist ﬁlm came out of the London ﬁlm-makers co-op
- Room Film 1973 by Peter Gidal. He’s showing the same shot over and over again — back then a hugely laborious thing to do (you’d have to physically make copies of the ﬁlm). This is ﬁlm about ﬁlm, exposing the underlying mechanics of ﬁlm-making, or ﬁlm as ﬁlm.
- Ray Gun Virus (1966) by Paul Sharits
- Dresden Dynamo (1971) by Rhodes Lis. Note that the sound comes from her drawing directly onto the ﬁlm (which contains sound information in visual form).
- Berlin Horse (1970) by Malcom Le Grice
All of these people are making work about analogue ﬁlm — digital images work entirely differently:
How a single pixel turns photons into an electrical signal. Source
Multiple pixels, with RGB-coloured ﬁlters are needed to capture colour images. Source
Cameras (especially phones) apply all kinds of digital optimisations to images: Simple things like bringing up the saturation, increasing the contrast, but also more advanced operations like smooting out skin, morphing bodyparts to make them look more “attractive”.
When images are shared online, there’s additional processes like scaling and compression. Any screen you look at a photograph on is doing its own, interanl optimisations to it.
All of this is to say, digital images have a limited link with reality (certainly not the chemical index that analogue material represents).
Let’s make a digital ﬁlm that explores some of the inherent characteristics of digital images (in the same way the structuralists made ﬁlms abotu analogue ﬁlm-making).
Friday, Febuary 8th
- Southpark: It’s not a news story
- Southpark: Ridding the world of ads
- James Bridle: Something is wrong on the internet: This talks about creepy kids’ Youtube videos. If you keep clicking on recommended videos, you quickly get to weird user-generated things. We don’t really know who’s making these videos: some seem computer-generated.
- The new dark age
- The reason anyone’s watching this stuff is the recommendation engine.
- You now get Youtube Kids and Netﬂix Kids.
Let’s step away from this stuff for a second.
- Exquisite Corpses in the Tate (By the Dadaists)
- William Burroughs’ Cut-up technique
Predictive text poems
Tap the ﬁrst one 20 times.
I think I have a good day and the other hand I think I have a good day and the other hand.
Left, Middle, Right
I have to say it but I think it’s a good day at the moment is that you have a good time to be the ﬁrst half and we have to say it but it is not just a good time.
‘John Berger’, then left
John Berger said that the ﬁrst half and we have to say it but I think it’s a good day and the other hand I think I have a good day and the other hand I think I have a good day and the other hand I think I have a good day and the other hand I think I have a good day and the other hand I think I have a good day
Only middle suggestion:
Tap the ﬁrst half and we have to say it but I think it’s a good day and the other hand I think I have a good day and the other hand I think I have a good day and the other hand I think I have a good day and the other hand
Only right suggestion:
is there anything I have a good day and the ﬁrst time since his wife was in my head is that the other hand I think I have to be in my life I think I have a good day at work now I think I have a good day at the moment and we are going for it to the ﬁrst time in my life and we are looking for a new role in the other day at the moment is that it but I think it’s a good idea for it but it but it is not a problem with the ﬁrst time since his arrival in the ﬁrst half and we have to say that it is the ﬁrst half of the year award and the ﬁrst time since his arrival in the other day and I think I have a good day at work and we are looking for a new role as I have to be in the ﬁrst half of the other hand I think I have to say that the other day
at the ofﬁce of fair trading to be the other hand I think I have to be in the other day at the moment is that it but I think it’s a bit of the year and the other hand I think I will go back and we are going to be the other hand I think I have to be in my life and the ﬁrst time in a while ago and we are looking for a new job is the ﬁrst half and we have to be in the ﬁrst half and we have to be in the other hand I think I have a look and the ﬁrst time since I have to be in my life I have to say that it but it but it but it but it but it but it but I think I will be in my life I have to be in my head and we
‘A’, then only left suggestion
And I think I have a good day and the other hand I think I have a good day and the other hand I think I have a good day and the other hand I think I have a good day and the other hand I think I have a good day and the other hand I think I have a good day and the other hand I
- Sunspring (2018): a bit contrived.
- John Smith (1992): Gargantuan
Ways of subverting machines/systems:
- Also John Smith: Fresh Fruit Venerable
- Dieter Kiessling (1998): Two Cameras
- Kicking the Boston Dynamics dog robot
- Cory Arcangel: Beat the Champ. Not unlike people having their Amazon Echo and Google Home talk to each other.
All of these tend to go back to the human creator: Look at was this genius artist made this machine do. Sunspring is (maybe) more of an equal collaboration. Obvious Art made the Sotheby’s painting.
Friday, Febuary 22
This week: Time and the digital.
- Realtime only becomes a thing when there’s an alternative.
- Early TV was only live. To show a ﬁlm, they would point a TV camera at a projection of a ﬁlm.
- Annabel Nicolson (1973): Reel Time. She’s using a sewing machine to manipulate the ﬁlm strip as it’s being projected, making a ﬁlm that happens in reel time.
- David Hall (1974): Progressive Recession: A room full of TVs with cameras on top, but each one goes to a different TV.
- Nam June Paik (1965): Nixon. This is the thing in the Tate with the two TVs being distorted by electromagnets.
- Nicky Hamlyn (2016): Concentricss
- Jennifer Ringley: The ﬁrst reality-TV personality: JenniCam(1996).
- The Academic: Bear Claw
Recursive instagram story
Friday, March 1
- Hockney drawings on TV in the 80s and on iPad now
- When you project a Hockney iPad drawing on your wall you can have an original Hockney in your room. He says that these images are meant to be accessible, but he hasn’t got a website where they’re all collected. INstead he emails them to select people and we scrape them off Google images.
- Otto Ford makes (gorgeous) digital drawings, then does one print and throws away the ﬁle. Arguably this is shying away from the problem.
- Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction
Otto Ford Source
- Cindy Sherman has an Instagram
- Facetime with Cindy Sherman, in which she says that her Instagram work are essentially distractions, don’t compete with her “serious” work
- How do we value labour? Using an app in the same way Sherman and Hockney do doesn’t take the same skill that doing a painting or printing a photograph do.
- Maybe we can see Cindy Sherman’s Instagram as readymade photography?
- Rachel MacLean
- In contrast: Tango (1980) by Zbigniew Rybczynski (which could now be made in a day, in the 80s this took 6 months).
- Maybe the Sherman and Hockney digital images are a kind of pop art, like Warhol Soup Cans?
- Shot on iPhone Campaign doesn’t show the product, but the process. Sherman doing the same thing (showing what it’s like to use phone apps, not screenshots of them)